The Constitution of India is the supreme law in India. The constitution is the framework for political principles, procedures, and powers of government. It's also the longest constitution in the world with 448 articles, 22 parts, 12 schedules. The constitution was written on 26 November 1949, and was made the center of law in 26 January 1950.
India had to face many problems after independence. Rehabilitating the refugees who migrated from Pakistan, merging the princely states, maintenance of law and order were challenges. Sardar Patel successfully achieved the merger of the princely states and provinces with the Union of India. Even the challenge of framing a constitution in order to enable govern the country was also fulfilled.
A Constitution is a set of rules and regulations guiding the administration of a country. The recommendations of the Motilal Nehru Committee and the decisions taken by the meeting of National Congress at Karachi prepared for the formation of a Constituent Assembly.
The first meeting of the new constituent Assembly was conducted on 9th of December, 1946. The next meeting conducted in 11th of December, 1946 under the chairmanship of Dr. Rajendra Prasad. Participants included Jawaharlal Nehru, Sardar Vallabhai Patel, Dr.B.R.Ambedkar, and Sarojini Naidu. Dr. B.R Ambedkar, chairman of the Drafting Committee, is often called the father of the Indian Constitution.
The 389 members of the Constituent Assembly formed many committees to examine in detail all the issues relating to the country. Dr.B.R.Ambedkar was the Chairman of one of the most important committees, i.e., the Drafting Committee. Other members of the committee were N.Gopalaswamy Iyengar, Alladi Krishnaswamy etc.
The Constituent Assembly, which came into existence on 11th of December 1946, had 145 meetings and framed a draft constitution. During these discussions, the various laws proposed by the British Government in 1909, 1919 and 1935, the British Parliamentary system, the American Bill of Rights, the Social Directive Policies of Ireland were studied and some parts of those were written in the Constitution. Finally, the Indian Constitution was approved on 26th of November, 1949 and came into effect on 26th of January, 1950. This day (January 26) is celebrated as the 'Republic Day' in India.
Structure[change | change source]
Below is a list of all articles in chronological order of the constitution.
- Part I – Union and its Territory
- Part II – Citizenship.
- Part III – Fundamental Rights.
- Part IV – Directive Principles of State Policy.
- Part IVA - Fundamental Duties.
- Part V – The Union.
- Part VI – The States.
- Part VII – States in the B part of the First schedule(Repealed).
- Part VIII – The Union Territories
- Part IX – The Panchayats.
- Part IXA - The Municipalities.
- Part X – The scheduled and Tribal Areas
- Part XI – Relations between the Union and the States.
- Part XII – Finance, Property, Contracts and Suits
- Part XIII – Trade and Commerce within the territory of India
- Part XIV – Services Under the Union, the States.
- Part XIVA - Tribunals.
- Part XV – Elections
- Part XVI – Special Provisions Relating to certain Classes.
- Part XVII – Languages
- Part XVIII – Emergency Provisions
- Part XIX – Miscellaneous
- Part XX – Amendment of the Constitution
- Part XXI – Temporary, Transitional and Special Provisions
- Part XXII – Short title, date of commencement, Authoritative text in Hindi and Repeals
Related pages[change | change source]
References[change | change source]
References[change | change source]
|Delhi Republic Day parade|
A float representing the State of Maharashtra at the 2015 Republic Day Parade.
|Genre||National patriotic parade|
|Location(s)||New Delhi, India|
|Previous event||26 January 2018|
|Next event||26 January 2019|
|Organised by||Ministry of Defence|
The Delhi Republic Day parade is the largest and most important of the parades marking the Republic Day celebrations in India. The parade takes place every year on 26 January at Rajpath, New Delhi. It is the main attraction of India's Republic Day celebrations, which last for 3 days. The parade showcases India's defence capability and its cultural and social heritage.
Republic Day Parade
To mark the importance of the Republic Day, every year a grand parade is held in the capital, New Delhi, from the Raisina HillRashtrapati Bhavan (the President's residence), along the Rajpath, past India Gate. Prior to its commencement, the Prime Minister lays a floral wreath at the Amar Jawan Jyoti, a memorial to fallen soldiers at the India Gate at one end of Rajpath, which is followed by two minutes silence in the memory of fallen soldiers. It is a solemn reminder of the sacrifice of the martyrs who died for the country in the freedom movement and the succeeding wars for the defence of sovereignty of their country. Thereafter he/she reaches the main dais at Rajpath to join other dignitaries, subsequently the President arrives along with the chief guest of the occasion. They are escorted on horseback by the President's Bodyguard.
First, the president unfurls the National flag, as the National Anthem is played, and a 21-gun salute is given as the PBG renders the National Salute. Next, important awards like the Ashok Chakra and Kirti Chakra are given away by the President, before the regiments of Armed Forces start their march past. The President comes forward to award the medals of bravery to the people from the armed forces for their exceptional courage in the field and also the civilians, who have distinguished themselves by their different acts of valour in different situations. Children who receive the National Bravery Award ride past the spectators on colourfully decorated elephants or vehicles.
Nine to twelve different regiments of the Indian Army in addition to the Navy, and Air Force with their bands march past in all their finery and official decorations. The President of India who is the Commander-in-Chief of the Indian Armed Forces, takes the salute. Twelve contingents of various para-military forces of India and other civil forces also take part in this parade. One of the unique sights of the parade is the camel mounted Border Security Force contingent, which is the only camel mounted military force in the world. The best N.C.C. cadets, selected from all over the country consider it an honour to participate in this event, as do the school children from various schools in the capital. They spend many days preparing for the event and no expense is spared to see that every detail is taken care of, from their practice for the drills, the essential props and their uniforms. 22 to 30 floats exhibiting the cultures of the various states and union territories of India, including floats of union ministries and state enterprises are in the grand parade, which is broadcast nationwide on television and radio. These moving exhibits depict scenes of activities of people in those states and the music and songs of that particular state accompany each display. Each display brings out the diversity and richness of the culture of India and the whole show lends a festive air to the occasion. Around 1200 schoolchildren present cultural dances as part of the parade. The 2016 Republic Day marked the return of K-9 Dog Squad to the parade after 26 years.
The parade traditionally ends with dare devil motor cycle riding by motorcycle units of the Armed Forces and a flypast by the Indian Air Force jets and helicopters carrying the national flag and the flags of the three services.
Comprising over 25 marching and mounted contingents, various military vehicles, 20 military bands, 30 cultural tableaux and 30 aircraft in addition to cultural performers and 1200 schoolchildren, India's Republic Day Parade in New Delhi is the most spectacular regular parade in the world.
Every part of the country is represented in the parade, which makes the Republic Day parade very popular. A full dress rehearsal Parade is also organized on 23 January every year to take stock of the preparedness.
The Beating Retreat ceremony officially denotes the end of Republic Day festivities. It is conducted on the evening of 29 January, the third day after the Republic Day. It is performed by the bands of the three wings of the military, the Indian Army, Indian Navy and Indian Air Force. The venue is Raisina Hills and an adjacent square, Vijay Chowk, flanked by the north and south block of the Rashtrapati Bhavan (President's Palace) towards the end of Rajpath.
The Chief Guest of the function is the President of India who arrives escorted by the Presidential Body Guard (PBG), a cavalry unit. When the President arrives, the PBG commander asks the unit to give the National Salute, which is followed by playing of the Indian National Anthem, Jana Gana Mana, by the Army developed the ceremony of display by the massed bands in which Military Bands, Pipe and Drum Bands, Buglers and Trumpeters from various Army Regiments besides bands from the Navy and Air Force take part which play popular tunes like Abide With Me, Mahatma Gandhi's favourite hymn, and Saare Jahan Se Achcha at the end.
See also: List of state visits to India § Republic Day Parade Guests
Since 1950, India has been hosting a head of state or government of another country as the state guest of honour for Republic Day celebrations in New Delhi. During 1950–1954, Republic Day celebrations were organised at different venues (like Irwin Stadium (National Stadium), Kingsway (Rajpath), Red Fort and Ramlila grounds). It was only starting 1955 when the parade in its present form was organised at Rajpath. The guest country is chosen after a deliberation of strategic, economic and political interests. During the 1950s–1970s, a number of NAM and Eastern Bloc countries were hosted by India. In the post-Cold War era, India has also invited several Western leaders on a state visit during the Republic Day. It is notable that before India fought wars with China and Pakistan, leaders from these countries were invited as state guests for the Republic Day celebrations. Interestingly, Pakistan Food and Agriculture Minister was the second state guest from that country for Republic Day in 1965, a few days after which the two countries went to a war. Countries which have been invited multiple times include India's neighbours (Bhutan, Sri Lanka and Mauritius), defence allies (Russia/USSR, France and Britain), trade partners (Brazil) and NAM allies (Nigeria, Indonesia and erstwhile Yugoslavia). France has the distinction of being the guest of honour for the maximum (five) number of times followed by four visits from Bhutan and three visits each from Mauritius and USSR/Russia. In 2015, the US President Barack Obama was the Chief Guest at Republic Day celebrations, followed by French president François Hollande during the 2016 Republic Day parade. In 2017, Crown Prince Mohammed bin Zayed Al Nahyan from the United Arab Emirates was the Chief Guest of the parade.
In 2016, French Army soldiers and French Army Band took part in the 67th Republic Day parade. This marked the first time since the beginning of the parade in 1950, that a foreign army contingent marched down the Rajpath during the Republic Day parade.
Best marching contingents
Best three tableaux
5 times (France, UK)
4 times (Bhutan, Russia/USSR)
Thrice (Indonesia, Mauritius)
Twice (Brazil, Japan, Nepal, Nigeria, Pakistan, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam)