Essay Outline Immigration

In this Immigration essay example, we will offer some sample titles, topics, an outline, and structure that you can use in helping you write your essay. The start of any good essay is an interesting topic statement followed by a succinct and descriptive thesis statement. The thesis statement acts as the direction from which a reader takes when examining the body and conclusion. Body paragraphs should include a background on the topic and subtopics addressing each part of the thesis statement. The conclusion is a brief recap of what was covered throughout the paper.

Table of Contents

1. Titles
2. Topics
3. Outline
4. Introduction
5. Essay Hook
7. Thesis Statement
7. Body of Essay
8. Conclusion
9. Works Cited

Titles:

Immigration in the United States

Past and Present Immigration Patterns in the United States

Lost and Found: Immigration in the United States

Selected Title: The Birth of a Nation: Immigration

Topics:

History of Immigration

Immigration Patterns in the United States

Contemporary Immigration

Effects of Immigration

Outline:

I.  Introduction

II.  Body

A.  Background

B.  Immigration Patterns

C.  Social: Effects of Illegal Immigration

D.  Political: Trump’s Stand Against Illegals

III.  Conclusion

Introduction

Immigration to the United States dates all the way back to the 1500’s with Roanoke Island and continued with British colonists, leading up to the South American, Central American, and Mexican waves of immigration that make up most immigration patterns today. Although the waves of immigration have changed throughout the history of the country, most of the same problems occur. From assimilation to a new country, to social pressures, and political reform, being an immigrant in the United States bring problems. This may be due to how immigrants are seen and the potential effects immigration causes to the American economy.

Essay Hook

Immigration is a hot-button issue in the United States and always has been since its formation.

Thesis Statement

This essay will cover the roots of American immigration, patterns of immigration, social and political effects of illegal immigration, and the current handling of illegal immigrants by current President, Donald Trump.

Background 

Most of the early immigrants to the United States came from Great Britain. Information from the 1980’s United States Census shares that over 49 million Americans or 26.34% of the population claim English ancestry. Such statistics place British Americans as the biggest American ethnic group (Barkan, 2013). The reason why so many British people came to the then colonies was for religious freedom. Some felt persecuted in Great Britain for their religious beliefs and sought out a fresh start elsewhere. They saw the American colonies to begin anew and practice their beliefs without fear or worry (Barkan, 2013).

So many come to the United States now to escape persecution. It is interesting to see how the roots of immigration began with the same sentiments and notion. Although early waves of immigration began with Great Britain, it wasn’t until Roanoke that colonization efforts truly took hold. One of the earlier attempts at immigration, Roanoke, marked the beginning of colonization efforts. “Soon after the failed attempt to colonize Roanoke in 1585, the commercial classes and merchant companies used their growing political voice to promote immigration to America” (Barkan, 2013, p. 19). Companies like the Virginia Company as well as the Massachusetts Bay Company allowed for early colonists to voyage to North America and establish the first permanent English settlements. These settlements then attracted more immigrants, keeping the flow of immigration consistent for centuries. “These business-minded, entrepreneurial, profit-seeking colonies proved suitable for the American environment and perhaps set much of the tone for American culture” (Barkan, 2013, p. 19).

So, what began as a potential business venture, allowed for the expansion and continued growth of the American colonies. These colonies would then rebel against its mother country (Great Britain), and begin the American Revolution. The American Revolution heralded the birth of the United States Constitution and the country it formed thereafter. It also brought changes in immigration patterns that would represent the growing changes of each era in the United States. These eras began with ethnic diversity, then halted, and began again, showing the differences in policy with each change.

Immigration Patterns

Before the American Revolution, the North American colonies experienced a great diversity of immigrants. “…and a number of those communities- German, Dutch, Swedish, Irish Protestants, and the other British, along with the extensive population of Africans- set the stage for the accommodation and acceptance of some populations…” (Barkan, 2013, p. 4). After the American Revolution, immigration to America became limited. This was due to the politics of the Napoleonic Wars (Powell, 2008).

These limitations prompted some groups to move to Canada. “The immigration of Scots from Scotland itself was redirected to Canada after the American Revolution. By the time the first Canadian census in 1871, Scots totaled 26 percent of the population, compared to 24 percent Irish and 20 percent English” (Powell, 2008, p. 265). What immigrants did make it to the United States were majority British and German. Although some Chinese immigrants made it to the United States thanks to railroad work, the 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act restricted immigration from China. It was not until the opening of Ellis Island in 1892 that the country saw a greater influx of immigrants. This is because prior to Ellis Island, individual states regulated immigration, creating even tougher hurdles for immigrants of the time (Powell, 2008).

While Ellis Island made it easier for immigrants from Italy, Poland, and Ireland to come to the United States, the Chinese immigrants were excluded for over sixty years from 1882 to 1943. The act showed the level of racial tension in the United States and acted a precursor to future racial tensions in the country because of immigration. The United has had a long history of racial tension. Racial tension that sparked political and social action.

Beginning with the first Africans that were captured and put to work as slaves in the colonies, institutionalized racism remained a dark part of American politics and society for centuries. Americans saw Africans as property and resented the wave of Chinese immigrants that came for the promise of work in gold-rich California. The resentment of these new immigrants became so strong that during the 1850’s, an anti-Catholic, anti-immigrant political party formed to severely curb immigration. They succeeded in putting a presidential candidate up for election in 1956 (Millard Filmore) and were able to dominate the political climate of Massachusetts, generating a formidable power there. “Their most spectacular triumph was achieved in Massachusetts. In their very first election, Massachusetts Know-Nothings won the governorship and all state offices, every sear in the state senate, and all but 2 out of the 378 seats in the house of representatives” (Reichley, 2010, p. 188).

The Know-Nothings were able to plant the seeds from which the Exclusion Act developed and would take decades to break. The Chinese suffered racial injustice and continued restrictions for decades to come. It was not until 1965 that the United States began welcoming new immigrants from Asia and Latin America, sparking the kinds of immigration patterns seen today. The quota system that favored the inclusion of European immigrants to America, ended in 1965 and with it, came migration from Mexico and countries in Central and South America. These immigrants sparked a wave of illegal immigration that would set the stage for the effects felt and culminating during the 2016 presidential election.

Social: Effects of Illegal Immigration

To understand the negative sentiments associated with illegal immigrants, it is important to understand where they come from and how many come from each country. This can perhaps paint a picture of the illegal immigrant and why their presence may bother some American citizens. The main source of undocumented immigrants come from Mexico with an estimated 6.2 million. Guatemala has 723,000 illegal immigrants in the United States. El Salvador comes in at 465,000 and Honduras at 337,000. Other countries with a substantial number of illegal immigrants are China (268,000), India (267,000), Korea (198,000), and the rest (2.1 million) come from other countries (Yee, Davis, & Patel, 2017).

Because so many Mexicans are undocumented immigrants, the stereotypical image of the illegal immigrant is Mexican. Add to that the potential addition of criminals as part of the undocumented immigrant population, and it yields another layer of negative association to the stereotype. “The Migration Policy Institute has estimated that 820,000 of the 11 million unauthorized have been convicted of a crime. About 300,000, or less than 3 percent of the 11 million undocumented, have committed felonies” (Yee, Davis, & Patel, 2017). Criminal activity is associated with illegal immigrants. They managed to sneak into the country illegally and may be capable of other crimes. Many Americans that want illegal immigrants deported, note the identity theft crimes that illegal immigrants participate in each year. “The Social Security Administration estimated that in 2010, 1.8 million undocumented immigrants worked under a number that did not match their name” (Yee, Davis, & Patel, 2017).

Risk of identity theft, loss of jobs for the working class, and potential exposure to criminals has made the idea of illegal immigrants a main issue in the country. With each year passing, the number of undocumented immigrants increases. According to statistics 150,000 undocumented immigrants came to America versus one million legal immigrants. Those that come undocumented, the majority are Hispanic/Latino and Asian. “Of the 28.4 million foreign-born residents in the United States in 2000, Latinos accounted for 14.5 million; 7.2 million were Asian” (Cannon, 2010, p. 185). These illegals join the 11 million existing illegals residing in the United States, further creating a divide among the American public. That divide has propelled action in the government.

In the last decade, the White House has attempted to crack down on illegal immigration. “In 2005 the Boarder Protection, Anti-Terrorism, and Illegal Immigration Control Act was passed in the House of Representatives, but was defeated in the Senate. The bill would have made it a Federal crime to be an illegal immigrant in the United States” (Cannon, 2010, p. 185). Although the bill was not passed, it helped set the stage like the Know-Nothing Party did in the late 19th century, to breed anti-immigrant attitudes among American voters. Many of those that disliked the arrival of undocumented immigrants felt so because illegals took jobs for lower pay that would have gone to working class Americans. These Americans could find no source of employment and saw the illegals as a step back from economic prosperity. The attitudes festered for years until the arrival of political figures that would help these Americans turn their anger into real political power.

These political figures helped states like Arizona and Alabama crackdown on illegals, allowing police to check for illegal status. “After Arizona and Alabama passed strict immigration laws that required police to check the immigration status of anyone they suspected to be in the country illegally, anti-immigrant groups lost some of their momentum” (Fox, 2014). One such notable figure was U.S. District Judge Susan Bolton who approved such measures in a 2012 Supreme Court decision. The law was nicknamed ‘show me your papers’ provision and began as early as July 2010 with small changes to state immigrant smuggling laws.

These small changes were negligible at first. People at the time were happy with the outcome, stopping their anti-immigration rhetoric and rallies. However, a couple of years passed and people began to take the anti-immigration position again. Many that opposed illegal immigration felt illegals took jobs from them, were engaging in criminal activity, and took valuable government resources. So, the stage was set in 2016 for another anti-immigration movement to take shape. This time it would come as part of a presidential platform. This presidential platform set the stage not only for the 2016 Presidential election, but for many of the actions that took place in 2017 in the White House.

During the Presidential election of 2016, Donald Trump used illegal immigration as a platform from which to build his campaign. His famous ‘build a wall’ promise matched the negative sentiments felt by an angry and disheartened American public.

Building upon already established negative perceptions of illegal immigrants, Trump has manipulated these perceptions by echoing people’s prejudices. During a debate inside Cleveland’s Quicken Loans Arena, Trump made a point of stating: ‘They send the bad ones over, because they don’t want to pay for them, they don’t want to take care of them.’ Trump has also proposed to build a wall that will run the length of the Mexico/U.S. border in order to stop illegal immigration (Korostelina, 2016, p. 42).

Such campaign promises led him to gain victory in the Republic Primaries and eventually, win the Presidential election against Hillary Clinton. When Trump took office in January of 2017, his first 100 days marked a change in how the American government dealt with immigration.

Political: Trump’s Stand Against Illegals

Trump had won the election and prepared his cabinet so he could begin transforming the United States. At the top of his agenda was the deportation of illegal immigrants. Through the signing of two executive orders, Trump began the crackdown on illegals. The executive orders aimed to tighten border security as well as crack down on sanctuary cities allowing U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) to make more arrests. Since the first 100 days of President Trump’s term as President, over 41,300 arrests have been made. “…represents a 38 percent increase from the same time period in 2016, when ICE arrested 30,000 undocumented immigrants. ICE’s acting director attributed spike in arrests to ‘agents and officers given clear direction to focus on threats to public safety’” (Bendix, 2017). While arrests have increased by 13,000 arrests, the number of deportations have gone down compared to 2016 deportation rates around the same period.

The two executive orders signed by Trump in January of 2017 sought to increase the authority of U.S. immigration officials. The details of the first order include “he immediate construction of a physical wall on the southern border” between Mexico and the U.S., and calls for an additional 5,000 border patrol agents in the region” (Bendix, 2017), while the second order adds a limit to the ability of sanctuary cities to offer refuge to illegals. Trump did this by removing eligibility of these cities to receive federal funding if they did not cooperate with immigration authorities. Additionally, the second order “expands the number of undocumented immigrants who are considered “priorities for removal.” Under the new legislation, any undocumented immigrant who poses a “risk to public safety or national security” qualifies as a priority” (Bendix, 2017).

While the Obama Administration sought to prioritize the capture of criminal illegals, especially those involved in gangs and organized crime, Trump decided to widen the net and used such priority on most illegal immigrants. As to why many of these arrested illegals have not been deported, the backlog experienced by the courts serve as the main reason. With more cases added thanks to the new arrests, the immigration court system has slowed down, keeping deportations at a stand-still. Deportations have declined to 56,315, a twelve percent decrease from 2016 (Bendix, 2017).

Regardless of number of deportations or number of arrests, the Trump Administration has made it clear it wishes to end the problem of illegals in America. Trump supporters hail Trump’s decision to build the wall and arrest illegals. However, another key action by Trump was not so well favored. The ‘Muslim Ban’ Trump signed as an executive order, restricted travel to and from six predominantly Muslim countries (Newton, 2017).

The targeted countries were Iran, Yemen, Libya, Sudan, Somalia, and Iran (Newton, 2017). Critics of the ban believed the move was unconstitutional and the courts eventually removed the ban. This was regarded by many in the government and media as the most extreme act of anti-immigration in American history. Although the Chinese Exclusion Act was roughly the same in limiting certain people from entering the country, Trump’s executive order demonstrated the kind of fear and anger the American public feels because of immigration in a society that has supposedly freed itself from racism and societal outrage. If these events are what mark Trump’s presidency, it shows the level of instability in the United States. Furthermore, it marks a change in American beliefs and sentiments towards immigration.

Conclusion

Immigration has been an integral part of the United States since its colonial days. What started as a failed experiment at Roanoke became waves of new people each century. Although there was diversity in the days before the American Revolution, things changed after it. One notable change was the desire of the American government to exclude entire peoples from immigrating into the country. What started off as a Know-Nothing political party, took form as the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882. Only in 1965 did immigration resume, full steam ahead.

With the new waves of immigrants came new problems. This was in the form of illegal immigrants. Many illegal immigrants came from what is known as Latin America (Mexico, Central, and South America). Mexico primarily, brought many illegal immigrants that reshaped the way immigrants are viewed by Americans and how the American government sought to alleviate the problem of illegal immigration.

What culminated in the election of President Trump, immigration took center stage as it represented the hardships, beliefs, and principles of many in the American public. Voters wanted more economic stability and saw illegal immigration as a deterrent to true American prosperity. President Donald Trump used this platform to gain the votes of sympathetic voters and parlayed that power into removing many illegal immigrants, even setting a never-before-seen ban on any immigrant desiring to come to or come back into the United States that came from certain countries. These times have brought back many difficult and troubling experiences for immigrants and set the stage for a new era in immigration.

This era seems rife with anger and cries of injustice on both sides. Has immigration become a nightmare for those looking to come to the United States? Time will tell. For now, immigration remains part of the American society. Immigration is still a way for people to come to a new land and get a second chance at a new life.

Immigration is a topic that offers a myriad of ways to address various subjects. Because immigration is different for every country, it is important to understand the background and current immigration patterns of any country you wish to cover. We hope this immigration essay offers you the tools to tackle other broad topics with ease and finesse. Who says some topics are too large to talk about? If you need any additional assistance, let us know. We’ll be happy to help.

 

References / Works Cited

Barkan, E. R. (2013). Immigrants in American history: Arrival, adaptation, and integration. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.

Bendix, A. (2017, May 17). Immigrant Arrests Are Up but Deportation Is Down Under Trump Administration – The Atlantic. Retrieved from https://www.theatlantic.com/news/archive/2017/05/under-trump-immigrants-arrests-are-up-but-deportation-is-down/527103/

Cannon, M. E. (2010). Social Justice Handbook: Small Steps for a Better World. IVP Books.

Fox, L. (2014, July 24). Anti-Immigrant Hate Coming From Everyday Americans Frustration with the current immigration system is coming from citizens, not hate groups. Retrieved from https://www.usnews.com/news/articles/2014/07/24/anti-immigrant-hate-coming-from-everyday-americans

Korostelina, K. V. (2016). Trump effect. New York: Routledge.

Newton, C. R. (2017). Still Sanders: Understanding 2016 & Moving Forward.

Powell, J. (2008). Encyclopedia of North American immigration. New York: Infobase Publishing.

Reichley, J. (2010). Religion in American public life. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.

Yee, V., Davis, K., & Patel, J. K. (2017, March 7). Here’s the Reality About Illegal Immigrants in the United States – The New York Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2017/03/06/us/politics/undocumented-illegal-immigrants.html?module=ArrowsNav&contentCollection=Politics&action=keypress®ion=FixedLeft&pgtype=Multimedia

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SAMPLE ESSAY ON IMMIGRATION & CUSTOMS ENFORCEMENT AGENCY


Abstract

The United States immigration and customs enforcement can be described as a federal agency that is mandated with the enforcement of federal laws that are intended to govern border control, customs, trade and immigration in the borders of the United States. The Immigration and Customs enforcement is responsible for the detention of aliens that are found in the country illegally. However, in recent times, it has come under the scrutiny of Human rights watch groups that have claimed that its systems are fundamentally redundant and that they are nothing of what they should be. This prompted this research in order to understand indeed whether the detention facilities have the deplorable conditions that have been described by some human watch groups.

Introduction

The United States immigration and customs enforcement can be described as a federal agency that is mandated with the enforcement of federal laws that are intended to govern border control, customs, trade and immigration in the borders of the United States. The United States immigration and customs enforcement was also created in a bid to ensure that it is able to promote public safety as well as homeland security.

The United States immigration and customs enforcement has two primary components and they include Homeland security investigations and enforcement and removal operations (ERO). The mission of the United States immigration and customs enforcement also involves the identification, arresting and the removal of aliens that represent a danger to national security or are a risk to public safety, and those that enter into the enter the United States in an illegal manner or otherwise they undermine the integrity of our immigration laws as well as the border control efforts.

The branch of Enforcement and removal operations (ERO) is important and it upholds America's immigration law at and within the America's borders through the efficient enforcement as well as removal operations. The ERO is supposed to enforce the nation's immigration laws in a fair as well as effective manner. It is supposed to lead in the identification and apprehension aliens and detain these individuals when it is necessary and remove these illegal aliens from the United States.

It is of the essence to note that the ERO often prioritizes the arresting and removal of convicted criminals as well as those that pose a threat to the national security of the United States. However, in the past there have been some issues regarding the detention of citizens, the conditions of the existing facilities and whether the law is followed to the letter in the detention of these immigrants and illegal aliens.

Problem Statement

The ICE enforcement and removal operations (ERO) often manage and oversee the national civil immigration detention system. The ICE is given mandate by the constitution to detain the illegal aliens and the detainees are often placed in ERO custody represent virtually every country in each of the countries of the world, those with various security classifications, both genders and the different medical conditions that range from healthy to the terminally ill.

It is of the essence to understand that the Non-U.S citizens that are apprehended and determined to need what is referred to as custodial supervision are often placed in several detention facilities. It is of the essence to understand that the ERO often looks at the processes and it effectively monitors the detained and non-detained cases as they move through the immigration court proceedings to a reasonable conclusion (LeMay, 2013). It is at this point that the ERO goes ahead and it executes the judge's orders.

However, of late there have been several issues regarding the detention of non-citizens and the way they are treated in the detention facility. It is imperative to understand that the Immigration and Customs enforcement houses a daily average of around 29,000 detainees in over 250 facilities that exist in the United States (LeMay, 2013).

There are various type of detention facilities such as the service processing centers, state and local jails as well as contract detention facilities (LeMay, 2013). There are some persons that have argued that some of the detention facilities are not up to par and that some of the detainees often face inhumane conditions in these detention facilities. This paper is going to explore some of the conditions that exist in the detention facilities, the death of several people in detention and whether indeed these detention facilities are humane.

Purpose Statement

The United States administration has often vowed to overhaul the immigration detention and has promised to create a more humane treatment as well as accountability. There have been several persons that have died because of the harrowing treatment under the custody of the United States immigration and customs enforcement (LeMay, 2013). However, the situation regarding the conditions of the detention facilities and the handling of the illegal aliens continue to be a major issue in the United States. Therefore, by exploring these conditions and the handling of the aliens it is possible for the monitoring of the situation at the facility and consequently understand what truly is going on these detention facilities.

Research Questions

There are several research questions that will effectively guide this experiment and make sure that it goes in the right direction and fulfill its objectives and thesis.

Q1. What are the conditions that exist in the detention facilities?

Q2. What are some high profile deaths that have occurred in the detention facilities?

Q3. Is the ERO carrying out its mandate in the right manner by detaining the individuals and sometimes mistreating them?

Key Points Addressed

There are several key points that are addressed in this research paper. They include

P1. The existing conditions of the United States immigration and customs enforcement owned detention facilities

P2. The deaths and injuries that have occurred to immigrants while they are in these detention facilities either as a result of mishandling by the United States immigration and customs enforcement officials or because of the existing conditions in the detention facilities.

P3. The current efforts that are being carried out at the Federal government to try and improve the conditions that exist in the detention facilities and also the handling of the illegal aliens in the detention facilities.

Proposed Methodology/Research Strategy

There will be the use of a mixed method of both qualitative and quantitative methods in this research paper. The qualitative methods will be based on the interviews and the information from the different spheres. On the other hand, it is of the essence to note that quantitative methods on the other hand will be pivotal in order to understand the underlying effects of the problem and whether the issue of the conditions that exist in the detention facilities is either systemic or it is a problem created by the current leadership.

This paper is going to utilize both primary and secondary resources. Primary resources will include interviews with several specialists that are concerned with the workings of the Immigration and customs enforcement agency. The interviews will be structured, and they will involve the use of several pre-determined questions in order to ensure that they can be able to ensure the uniformity of the answers.

Further, there will also be the use of questionnaires in the different ICE departments in order to get a glimpse of the different exercises that goes on in their detention facilities. The secondary resources on the hand will include the Immigration and customs enforcement agency website, literature on the conditions and handling of the aliens and different functions of the ICE as well as information from interviews with several ICE workers. This literature will be collected but not limited to magazines, journals, newspapers, books, blogs and Websites.

Assumptions

There are assumptions that will be made in this research paper, the first is that the articles that are reviewed give an accurate description of the conditions in the ICE detention facilities and that the interviews that were carried out by the research team were extremely accurate in the description of the different events and situations in the ICE detention facilities.

Scope

The Human rights watch group has put the ICE under its radar for what it refers to as human rights violations in the detention facilities that are owned and operated by the ICE (Hayes, 2012). In fact, over the last few years there have been several people that have died in these detention facilities and consequently, it can be argued that indeed there is an issue brewing in this sector and it needs to be taken into account in a quick manner in order for it to be solved in an efficient and effective manner. Therefore, this paper will examine these cases and look at the conditions that the Human rights watch groups have labeled as hostile and downright inhospitable.

Limitations

There are several limitations that occurred in relation to this study. Firstly, there was inadequate knowledge and information regarding the detention facilities and this is because they are not well documented and their access is often denied and limited. Further, there was also another limitation in that most employees in the ICE were not comfortable when it came to discussing matters relating to the ERO and they feigned ignorance in such matter (McWhirter,, 2006). This therefore, made it hard for the research team to find accurate results in a relation to the detention facilities and the handling of the aliens in these facilities at large.

Discussion

American have for a long time known that the government has been running what can be described as secretive immigration prison where detainees have often disappeared and their grave illness and most of their injuries untreated. In fact, the fate of these aliens are often undisclosed until after their early as well as unnecessary deaths. After the sourcing of several literature relating to this issue by several journalists, the matter has come to light and how the government is strenuously trying to cover up for the failings.

Read also about the US Immigration Agency

The government together with the ICE has been known to keep lawyers in the dark, the deflecting of blame, and fighting outside as well as oversight transparency (Cornelisse, 2010). According to digging by The Times as well as the American Civil liberties Union it was found out that the conditions in the detention centers were deplorable. The research team interviewed one member of the staff that argued that the detainee that killed himself had a broken leg and his pain became unbearable and consequently after not receiving medical care, he decided to kill himself.

There was one case that was cited by many staff officials during their interviews and questionnaires. This was the case of a Chinese computer engineer that was dragged from the Rhode Island Immigration jail and he was continuously mocked by guards and he screamed in pain from the undiagnosed cancer as well as a broken spine (Olshansky, 2010). The Chinese computer engineer eventually died. Another detainee was held for almost two years in a California detention center and he was denied a biopsy for what can be described as painful penile lesions. The government doctors suspected the cancer required the amputation of the penis but they did nothing towards the effect, the cancer spread extremely fast and the alien died.

Some of the detention facilities are in deplorable conditions, for example, the death of Dominguez Valdivia who was detained for two months and a half at the Adelanto immigration. This was detention complex built to house convicts and in the year 2011, it was contracted by the ICE to house immigrants into two wings east and west (Cornelisse, 2010). However, the detainees that were interviewed in this research paper argued that the East wing had leaking as well as broken pipes. It is this place where Valdivia was forced to stay while he was fighting bronchitis while at the same time not receiving medical attention. It is in the hospital that the bronchopneumonia spread into the blood stream and consequently caused a multi-organ failure.

It is of the essence to understand that the U.S office of detention oversight found that indeed that the death of Dominquez came as a result of the poor living conditions inside the detention complex and could have been avoided. However, despite this problem, there are other detention centers around the country that have leaking pipes, leaking roofs and even sub-standard toilets that causes a hygiene nightmare. It is of the essence to understand that there have been over 130 deaths that have occurred since the year 2003 in the over 250 detention centers for immigrants in the country (Meeropol, 2005). The conditions of these detention centers have been effectively blamed when it comes to the death of these persons as well as the lack of medical attention in these facilities.

According to an investigation by Detention Watch Network none of the 250 detention centers that exist in the United States can be able to effectively guarantee the detainees basic medical care or even the adequate protection against physical and sexual abuse. Further, these detention facilities do not guarantee enough contact with the outside in order to preserve their families and consequently prepare their legal defense. Further, there have been cases where there have been the rationing of meals, leaking pipes and beds full of crawling insects.

These conditions are extremely unacceptable and consequently there is a need to something in order to change this situation (Bosworth, 2014). There are two main problems that have led to the persistence of this problem and they are the ones that are supposed to be tackled by legislation they include the fact that there is lack of independent oversight and the fact that the detention centers do not apply the same standards as those stipulated in the contract.

The government has since promised to remedy the situation and promised a top-to-bottom reform of the immense detention system that was erected in a sloppy haste during the Bush years. It is of the essence to understand that the detention system was put up by largely private contractors that had a dim regard for oversight and standards (Bray, 2013). The leader of the Immigration and Customs enforcement has introduced plans that are intended to create a system of civil detention that will be suitable for inmates that are not criminals.

Findings/Conclusions

The research has found out that indeed that there is mistreatment of the inmates and there are deplorable conditions in the 250 detention facilities that exist in the United States. There are some of the detention facilities that are leaking while others should be out or order but are currently being used. The medical attention that is given in these detention facilities is bare minimum and in fact most deaths have occurred because of lack of enough medical attention to the patients. This is a systemic process and it should be changed in order to ensure that inmates are taken care of in the most humane way (Cornelisse, 2010). The United States is a leading country in terms of advocating for human rights and therefore, it is should not in any way allow human rights violations to occur in its own back yard and turn a blind eye on the situation.

References

Olshansky, B. (2010). Democracy Detained: Secret Unconstitutional Practices in the U.S. War on Terror. New York: Seven Stories Press.
Cornelisse, G. (2010). Immigration detention and human rights: Rethinking territorial sovereignty. Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.
Welch, M. (2002). Detained: Immigration laws and the expanding I.N.S. jail complex. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Bosworth, M. (2014). Inside immigration detention. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Meeropol, R. (2005). America's disappeared: Detainees, secret imprisonment, and the "war on terror". New York: Seven Stories.
McWhirter, R. J. (2006). The criminal lawyer's guide to immigration law: Questions and answers. Chicago, Ill: Criminal Justice Section, American Bar Association.
LeMay, M. C. (2013). Transforming America: Perspectives on U.S. immigration. Santa Barbara, Calif: Praeger.
Redburn, F. S., Reuter, P., Majmundar, M. K., & National Research Council (U.S.). (2011). Budgeting for immigration enforcement: A path to better performance. Washington, D.C: National Academies Press.
Hayes, P. J. (2012). The making of modern immigration: An encyclopedia of people and ideas. Santa Barbara, Calif: ABC-CLIO.
Bray, I. M. (2013). U.S. immigration made easy. Berkeley, CA: Nolo.

Annotated bibliography

Olshansky, B. (2010). Democracy Detained: Secret Unconstitutional Practices in the U.S. War on Terror. New York: Seven Stories Press.

This book by Olshansky discusses how some suspects of immigration that are considered to be terrorists are put in detention cells are tortured and are given minimal medical care. The detention centers that they live in are in deplorable conditions and there are unconstitutional practices that happen in these detention cells.

Cornelisse, G. (2010). Immigration detention and human rights: Rethinking territorial sovereignty. Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.

This article gives reports on several human rights watch groups regarding the American detention system and the conditions that exist in these detention centers.

Welch, M. (2002). Detained: Immigration laws and the expanding I.N.S. jail complex. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

This book states that there is a need for the United States to effectively expand their immigration laws as well as ensure that the conditions that exist in the detention centers are kept reasonable and that there is medical care in these hospitals.

Bosworth, M. (2014). Inside immigration detention. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

This article explores the life of the aliens inside the immigration detention facilities, the hardships that they go through, the conditions that they have to persevere as well as the injustice that ultimately befalls them.

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