State Anxiety In Sport Definition Essay

On By In 1

1. Hanton S, Mellalieu S, Williams JM. Understanding and managing stress in sport. In: Williams JM, Krane V, editors. Applied Sport Psychology: Personal Growth to Peak Performance. 7th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2015. pp. 207–239.

2. Weinberg RS, Gould D. Foundations of Sport and Exercise Psychology. 6th ed. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics; 2015.

3. Cheng WKN, Hardy L, Markland D. Toward a three-dimensional conceptualization of performance anxiety: rationale and initial measurement development. Psychol Sport Exercise. 2009;10(2):271–278.

4. Smith RE, Smoll FL. Sport performance anxiety. In: Leitenberg H, editor. Handbook of Social and Evaluation Anxiety. New York, NY: Plenum Press; 1990. pp. 417–454.

5. Patel DR, Omar H, Terry M. Sport-related performance anxiety in young female athletes. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2010;23(6):325–335.[PubMed]

6. Yerkes RMD, Dodson JD. The relation of strength of stimulus to rapidity of habit formation. J Comp Neurol Psychol. 1908;18(5):459–482.

7. Hull CL. Principles of behavior: An Introduction to Behavior Theory. New York, NY: Appleton-Century-Crofts; 1943.

8. Apter MJ. The Experience of Motivation: The Theory of Psychological Reversals. London: Academic Press; 1982.

9. Martens R, Vealey RS, Burton D. Competitive Anxiety in Sport. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics; 1990.

10. Hardy L, Parfitt G. A catastrophe model of anxiety and performance. Br J Psychol. 1991;82:163–178.[PubMed]

11. Hanin YL. Emotions and athletic performance: Individual Zones of Optimal Functioning model. Eur Yearbook Sport Psychol. 1997;1:29–72.

12. Woodman TH. L. Stress and anxiety. In: Singer RH, H A, Janelle CM, editors. Handbook of Research on Sport Psychology. New York, NY: Wiley; 2001. pp. 290–318.

13. Craft L, Magyar T, Becker BJ, Feltz DL. The relationship between the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 and sport performance: a meta-analysis. J Sport Exerc Psychol. 2003;25:44–65.

14. Woodman T, Hardy L. The relative impact of cognitive anxiety and self-confidence upon sport performance: a meta-analysis. J Sports Sci. 2003;21(6):443–457.[PubMed]

15. Jokela M, Hanin YL. Does the individual zones of optimal functioning model discriminate between successful and less successful athletes? A meta-analysis. J Sports Sci. 1999;17(11):873–887.[PubMed]

16. Brewer BW, Redmond C. Psychology of Sport Injury. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics; 2016.

17. Duncan MJ, Chan CKY, Clarke ND, Cox M, Smith M. The effect of badminton-specific exercise on badminton short-serve performance in competition and practice climates. Eur J Sport Sci. 2017;17(2):119.[PubMed]

18. Duncan MJ, Smith M, Bryant E, et al. Effects of increasing and decreasing physiological arousal on anticipation timing performance during competition and practice. Eur J Sport Sci. 2016;16(1):27–35.[PubMed]

19. Balyan KY, Tok S, Tatar A, Binboga E, Balyan M. The relationship among personality, cognitive anxiety, somatic Anxiety, physiological arousal, and performance in male athletes. J Clin Sport Psychol. 2016;10:48–58.

20. Geukes K, Harvey JT, Trezise A, Mesagno C. Personality and performance in real-world competitions: testing trait activation of fear of negative evaluation, dispositional reinvestment, and athletic identity in the field. Psychol Sport Exercise. 2017;30:101–110.

21. Noteboom JT, Barnholt KR, Enoka RM. Activation of the arousal response and impairment of performance increase with anxiety and stressor intensity. J Appl Physiol (1985) 2001;91(5):2093–2101.[PubMed]

22. Hammermeister J, Burton D. Stress, appraisal, and coping revisited: Examining the antecedents of competitive state anxiety with competitive endurance athletes. Sport Psychol. 2001;15:66–90.

23. Williams J, Andersen M. Psychosocial antecedents of sport injury: review and critique of the stress and injury model. J Sport Exercise Psychol. 1998;10:5–25.

24. Andersen MB, Williams JM. Athletic injury, psychosocial factors, and perceptual changes during stress. J Sports Sci. 1999;17(9):735–741.[PubMed]

25. Dvorak J, Junge A, Chomiak J, et al. Risk factor analysis for injuries in football players: possibilities for a prevention program. Am J Sports Med. 2000;28(90005):69S–74S.[PubMed]

26. Rogers TJ, Landers DM. Mediating effects of peripheral vision in the life event stress/athletic injury relationship. J Sport Exercise Psychol. 2005;27(3):271–288.

27. Ford IW, Eklund RC, Gordon S. An examination of psychosocial variables moderating the relationship between life stress and injury time-loss among athletes of a high standard. J Sports Sci. 2000;18:301–213.[PubMed]

28. Kolt GS, Kirkby RJ. Injury, anxiety, and mood in competitive gymnasts. Percept Mot Skills. 1994;78(3):955–962.[PubMed]

29. Lavallee D, Flint F. The relationship of stress, competitive anxiety, mood state, and social support to athletic injury. J Athl Train. 1996;31(4):296–299.[PMC free article][PubMed]

30. Brewer BW, Andersen MB, Van Raalte JL. Psychological aspects of sport injury rehabilitation: toward a biopsychological approach. In: Mostofsky DI, Zaichkowsky LD, editors. Medical Aspects of Sport and Exercise. Morgantown, WV: Fitness Information Technology; 2002. pp. 41–54.

31. Wiese-Bjornstal DM, Smith AM, Shaffer SM, Morrey MA. An integrated model of response to sport injury: psychological and sociological dynamics. J Appl Sport Psychol. 1998;10(1):46–69.

32. Andersen M, Williams J. A model of stress and athletic injury: prediction and prevention. J Sport Exercise Psychol. 1988;10:294–306.

33. Appaneal RN, Habif S. Psychological antecedents to sport injury. In: Arvinen-Barrow M, Walker N, editors. Psychology of Sport Injury and Rehabilitation. Abingdon: Routledge; 2013. pp. 6–22.

34. Williams JM, Andersen MB. Psychosocial antecedents of sport injury and interventions for risk reduction. In: Tenenbaum G, Eklund R, editors. Handbook of Sport Psychology. 3rd ed. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley; 2007. pp. 379–403.

35. Cagle A, Overcash K, Rowe D, Needle A. Trait anxiety as a risk factor for musculoskeletal injury in athletes: a critically appraised topic. Int J Athl Train Ther. 2017;22(3):26–31.

36. Kontos A. Perceived risk, risk taking, estimation of ability and injury among adolescent sport participants. J Pediatr Psychol. 2004;29(2):447–455.[PubMed]

37. Gnacinski SL, Arvinen-Barrow M, Brewer BW, Meyer BB. Factorial validity and measurement invariance of the perceived susceptibility to sport injury scale. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2017;27(7):754–761.[PubMed]

38. Reuter JM, Short SE. The relationships among three components of perceived risk of injury, previous injuries and gender in non-contact/limited contact sport athletes. Athl Insight Online J Sport Psychol. 2005;7(1):20–42.

39. Deroche TS, Y, Brewer B, Le Scanff C. Predictors of perceived susceptibility to sport-related injury. Pers Individ Differences. 2007;43:2218–2228.

40. Deroche T, Stephan Y, Woodman T, Le Scanff C. Psychological mediators of the sport injury–perceived risk relationship. Risk Anal. 2012;31(1):113–121.[PubMed]

41. Stephan Y, Deroche T, Brewer B, Caudroit J, Le Scanff C. Predictors of perceived susceptibility to sport-related injury among competitive runners: the role of previous experience, neuroticism, and passion for running. Appl Psychol. 2009;58(4):672–687.

42. Binboga E, Guven S, Çatıkkaş F, Bayazıt O, Tok S. Psychophysiological responses to competition and the Big Five personality traits. J Hum Kinet. 2012;33:187–194.[PMC free article][PubMed]

43. Covassin T, Crutcher B, Bleecker A, Heiden EO, Dailey A, Yang J. Postinjury anxiety and social support among collegiate athletes: a comparison between orthopedic injuries and concussions. J Athl Training. 2014;49(4):462–468.[PMC free article][PubMed]

44. Kamphoff C, Thomae J, Hamson-Utley JJ. Integrating the psychological and physiological aspects of sport injury rehabilitation: rehabilitation profiling and phases of rehabilitation. In: Arvinen-Barrow M, Walker N, editors. Psychology of Sport Injury and Rehabilitation. Abingdon: Routledge; 2013. pp. 134–155.

45. Hamson-Utley JJ. Psychology of sport injury: a holistic approach to rehabilitating the injured athlete. Chin J Sports Med. 2010;29(3):343–347.

46. Arvinen-Barrow M, Hemmings B, Weigand DA, Becker CA, Booth L. Views of chartered physiotherapists on the psychological content of their practice: a national follow-up survey in the United Kingdom. J Sport Rehabil. 2007;16(2):111–121.[PubMed]

47. Clement D, Granquist M, Arvinen-Barrow M. Psychosocial aspects of athletic injuries as perceived by athletic trainers. J Athl Train. 2013;48(4):512–521.[PMC free article][PubMed]

48. Heaney C. Physiotherapists’ perceptions of sport psychology intervention in professional soccer. Int J Sport Exerc Psychol. 2006;(4):67–80.

49. Francis SR, Andersen MB, Maley P. Physiotherapists’ and male professional athletes’ views on psychological skills for rehabilitation. J Sci Med Sport. 2000;3(1):17–29.[PubMed]

50. Hemmings B, Povey L. Views of chartered physiotherapists on the psychological content of their practice: a preliminary study in the United Kingdom. Br J Sports Med. 2002;36(1):61–64.[PMC free article][PubMed]

51. Houston MN, Cross KM, Saliba SA, Hertel J. Injury-related fear in acutely injured interscholastic and intercollegiate athletes. Athl Trai Sports Health Care. 2014;13:288–294.

52. Podlog L, Wadey R, Stark A, Lochbaum M, Hannon J, Newton M. An adolescent perspective on injury recovery and the return to sport. Psychol Sport Exerc. 2013;14(4):437–446.

53. Ruddock-Hudson M, O’Halloran P, Murphy G. The psychological impact of long-term injury on Australian football league players. J Appl Sport Psychol. 2014;26(4):377–394.

54. Clement D, Arvinen-Barrow M, Fetty T. Psychosocial responses during different phases of sport-injury rehabilitation: a qualitative study. J Athl Train. 2015;50(1):95–104.[PMC free article][PubMed]

55. Walker N, Thatcher J. The emotional response to athletic injury: Re-injury anxiety. In: Thatcher J, Jones MV, Lavallee D, editors. Coping and Emotion in Sport. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Routledge; 2011. pp. 235–259.

56. Walker N. The Meaning of Sports Injury and Re-injury Anxiety Assessment and Intervention. Aberystwyth: University of Wales; 2006.

57. Podlog L, Dimmock J, Miller J. A review of return to sport concerns following injury rehabilitation: practitioner strategies for enhancing recovery outcomes. Phys Ther Sport. 2011;12(1):36–42.[PubMed]

58. Podlog L, Eklund RC. Professional coaches’ perspectives on the return to sport following serious injury. J Appl Sport Psychol. 2007;19(2):207–225.

59. Podlog L, Hannon JC, Banham SM, Wadey R. Psychological readiness to return to competitive sport following injury: a qualitative study. Sport Psychol. 2015;29(1):1–14.

60. Podlog L, Lochbaum M, Stevens T. Need satisfaction, well-being, and perceived return to sport outcomes among injured athletes. J Appl Sport Psychol. 2010;22(2):167–182.

61. Wierike SM, Sluis A, van der Sluis A, van den Akker-Scheek I, Elferink-Gemser MT, Visscher C. Psychosocial factors influencing the recovery of athletes with anterior cruciate ligament injury: a systematic review. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2013;23(5):527–540.[PubMed]

62. Podlog L, Eklund RC. A longitudinal investigation of competitive athletes’ return to sport following serious injury. J Appl Sport Psychol. 2006;18(1):44–68.

63. Taylor J, editor. Assessment in Applied Sport Psychology. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics; 2017.

64. Arvinen-Barrow M, Hamson-Utley JJ, DeFreese JD. Sport injury, rehabilitation, and return to sport. In: Taylor J, editor. Assessment in Sport Psychology Consulting. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics; 2017.

65. Ray R, Wiese-Bjornstal DM, editors. Counseling in Sports Medicine. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics; 1999.

66. Arvinen-Barrow M, Walker N, editors. Psychology of Sport Injury and Rehabilitation. Abington: Routledge; 2013.

67. Crews DJ. Self-regulation strategies in sport and exercise. In: Singer RN, Murphy M, Tennant LK, editors. Handbook of Research on Sport Psychology. New York, NY: Macmillan; 1993. pp. 557–568.

68. Clement D, Arvinen-Barrow M. Sport medicine team influences in psychological rehabilitation: a multidisciplinary approach. In: Arvinen-Barrow M, Walker N, editors. The Psychology of Sport Injury and Rehabilitation. Abingdon: Routledge; 2013. pp. 156–170.

69. Meyer BB, Merkur A, Ebersole KT, Massey WV. The realities of working in elite sport. What they didn’t teach you in graduate school. In: Lane AM, Godfrey RJ, Loosemore M, Whyte GP, editors. Applied Sport Science and Medicine: Case Studies from Practice. CreateSpace: Self-published; 2014. pp. 137–142.

70. Arvinen-Barrow M, Clement D. A preliminary investigation into athletic trainers’ views and experiences of multidisciplinary team approach to sport injury rehabilitation. Athl Train Sports Health Care. 2015;7(3):97–107.

71. Arvinen-Barrow M, Clement D. Preliminary investigation into sport and exercise psychology consultants’ views and experiences of an interprofessional care team approach to sport injury rehabilitation. J Interprof Care. 2017;31(1):66–74.[PubMed]

Anxiety in sport is most common in competitive sports environments and could also be termed competitive stress. A lack of consensus makes it difficult to clearly define anxiety and stress in sport, but one definition, proposed by sport psychology consultant Dr. Graham Jones in the book “Sport Psychology: A Self-Help Guide,” is that it’s “the result of an interaction between the individual and the environment … an emotional response to the demands placed upon the individual by the environment.”

Video of the Day

Not all competitive stress is bad, and not all competitive athletes suffer from anxiety. The stresses of competition can be perceived by a competitor as either positive or negative. Positive stress is considered to be an important element of an athlete’s preparation, heightening the senses and leading to a feeling of being "psyched up" both physically and mentally.

According to the Drive Theory, a physically skilled athlete can gain a psychological edge over competitors by harnessing the power of positive stress. Conversely, negative stress can promote feelings of self-doubt, directly affecting an athlete’s ability to cope with the regular stresses of a competitive environment, ultimately leading to a drop in performance.

Anxiety has two main types:

State anxiety is transient and specific only to the particular situation an athlete finds herself in.

Trait anxiety is more general and enduring, suggesting a predisposition to anxiety in all areas of life, not just in sport.

Symptoms of anxiety are varied and individual to each athlete, but they can generally be recognized on three levels:

Cognitive symptoms relate to thought processes, including fear, indecision, poor concentration, loss of confidence and defeatist self-talk.

Somatic (physical) symptoms include muscular tension, clammy hands and feet, increased heart rate, sweating and butterflies in the stomach.

Behavioral symptoms relate to patterns of behavior, including inhibited posture, fingernail biting, avoidance of eye contact and uncharacteristic displays of introverted or extroverted behavior.

Competitive stress becomes negative, potentially leading to symptoms of anxiety, when an athlete perceives what is being asked of him to be beyond his capabilities. Anxiety is often linked to a fear of failure, and an athlete’s perception of his abilities may be based on a previous performance, his beliefs regarding the opposition or the perceived importance of the competition. His perception can also vary greatly from event to event, depending on his perceived state of physical and mental preparation in each case.

An athlete suffering symptoms of anxiety will inevitably underachieve. The physical and psychological effects experienced will have a negative impact on performance, and continued exposure can lead to burnout, often prompted by growing feelings of dissatisfaction, which can develop into a decision to leave sport completely. The results of a 2009 study published in the online sports psychology journal Athletic Insight highlight the correlation between competitive trait anxiety and burnout in young athletes.

Lose Weight. Feel Great! Change your life with MyPlate by LIVESTRONG.COM


Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *