Water is a necessity to life on earth. All organisms contain it, some drink it, and others inhabit it. Plants and animals require water that is moderately pure, and they cannot survive if their water is affluent with toxic chemicals and/or harmful microorganisms. If severe, water pollution can kill large numbers of fish, birds, and other animals, in some cases killing all members of a species in an affected area. Water pollution is not only hazardous to water-bond animals it also poses as threat to humans as well.
The majority of water pollution occurs when people overload the water environment with wastes. It's defined as contamination of streams, lakes, underground water, bays or oceans by substances harmful to living things. Such things as oil spills, boat fumes, and dumping of trash into the oceans, lakes, and rivers are just a few of the major contributors to water pollution.
Throughout the past century water pollution has become a very real problem and solution must be found.
First of all, Water pollution presents problems to humans in a few ways. Water pollution makes streams, lakes, and coastal waters unpleasant to look at, to smell, and to swim in, as well as preventing us from drinking it without filtration. Fish and shellfish harvested from polluted waters may be unsafe to eat. People who ingest polluted water can become ill and if they're exposed for a long time, may develop cancers, or have children with birth defects.
There are two types of water pollution; point source and non-point source. Point sources of pollution occur when harmful substances are put directly into a body of water (such as an oil spill). A non-point source is when pollutants enter the water indirectly through environmental changes (like when fertilizer is carried into a stream...
Air Pollution, Water Pollution and Noise Pollution!
The dictionary definition of pollution is to make air, water, soil, etc. dangerously dirty and not suitable for people to use. The main forms of pollution are air, water, soil, noise thermal and radioactive waves.
It is a man-made problem mainly caused by human waste material, release of poisonous gases and other chemical pollutants from the industry, agricultural pollutants like pesticides, and chemical fertilizers, pollutants by automobiles and dumping of chemical and nuclear wastes, etc. It has led to a worldwide environmental crisis. In many ways, it has changed both the individual and social ways of life.
The main sources of air pollution in India and elsewhere are mineral dust and gases, automobiles, thermal power plants and industries. Any contamination in the air may not only cause many diseases and loss of vision but can also disturb the whole atmospheric system. Air pollution can also cause acid rain which damages soil, vegetation and aquatic life of the region.
The heavy use of automobiles causes pollution and smog from automobile emissions. This has become a serious problem in almost all the countries—developed and developing.
The bad urban air bums the eyes, damages lung tissues and increases the levels of lead and other poisons in the human body and agricultural products. It is not known how many deaths occur nationally because of air pollution. Air pollution caused massive smog in London in 1952 killing some 4,000 people.
Contamination of water from any external source that makes it harmful to life is known as water pollution. With the fast industrial development and modem civilization, the problem of water pollution is increasing day by day. The major sources of water pollution are domestic effluents, agricultural effluents, sewage disposal, industrial wastes, radioactive wastes and oil leakages, etc.
All the Indian rivers, including the holy river Ganga, have become highly polluted today. Even, the Ganga Action Plan to control its water from pollution has not been proved successful. The impact of water pollution is widespread. It causes many severe water-borne diseases, such as diarrhea, trachoma, intestinal norms, hepatitis, jaundice, etc.
According to WHO, 21 per cent of all communicable diseases in India are water-borne diseases. Oil is the major pollutant of the sea water. Huge tankers routinely dump oil into the sea. This act of dumping poisons smothers or coats sea plants and animals and kills them.
All sounds are not noise. Noise is any sound that is unwanted and goes beyond its certain limit, i.e., above 80 decibels Harsh sounds of lightening and thunder, noise produced by machines, automobiles, railways, aero planes and the blaring sound of loudspeakers and some musical instruments come under the category of noise pollution.
More and more noise is the creation of modern civilization and has now become a major environmental pollutant, specially in urban areas. The most notable effect of noise pollution is on hearing. It may cause total loss of hearing that may result in the reduction of worker’s efficiency.
At the higher levels, it may lead to physical and psychological damage. There is evidence that noise is one of the major causes of stress and anxiety. It also causes headaches and irritability. It may also affect blood pressure and heart beat. Air, water and noise pollutions are very common which are creating havoc for all types of life. They have disastrous transnational consequences.